RF couplers are devices used to alter communication signals. They take one signal in and produce two output lines, one regular and another that is coupled. Depending on the application, the level of power required for each system varies greatly. You can use several different power dividers and couplers for signal sampling, injection, generation, and measuring.
Directional couplers are four-port devices, having an input, output, coupled port, and one that is for termination. When a signal enters the device through the input, it meets a coupling line, two lines are created, and the regular signal flows through the output while the coupled one goes out its designated port. Any reflections created during this process are sent to the fourth port, where they are terminated to reduce ghosting and other issues associated with couplers. These devices tend to be used in situations where the main signal contains a lot of power because of their characteristics.
This is when directional couplers get connected in a series or opposing directions to produce a single mainline and two coupled signals. These devices are necessary for systems when more coupled lines are necessary. They tend to be a prominent choice because they are good at keeping incident variation low. That means the main signal will have minimal alterations as it flows through the devices.
Instead of coupling signals, the 90-degree coupler splits a single input into two equal lines. It gets its name because the signals have 90-degree differentials in their phases.
The 180-degree coupler is another example that splits a single input into two equal signals. As expected, the signals it produces have 180-degree differentials in their phases.
Couplers are crucial for altering signals. Because they serve many different purposes, several types of couplers can be used for each system application.
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